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女性更容易抑郁?社会因素要背锅(双语)

分类:英语资讯 作者:千影 评论:0 点击: 325 次 日期:2016-06-26

  More women are affected by depression than men, according to the World Health Organization。

  据世卫组织表示,和男性相比,更多女性受到抑郁的影响。

  This pattern is seen in countries around the world, including the United States。

  在世界范围内,包括美国在内的许多国家都发现了这一现象。

  Cross-national and cross-cultural studies have indicated that the prevalence of depression among women is higher at any given time than among men。

  据跨国家和跨文化背景的研究表明,女性抑郁症患病率在任何时期都要高于男性。

  This pattern does not seem to have many exceptions。

  这一现象似乎没有多少例外。

  Why is that? Biological differences between men and women, like hormones, explain part of it。 These are examples of sex differences。

  为什么会产生这样的现象?两性之间的生物差异(例如荷尔蒙)可以部分解释这一现象。这些都是性差异的例子。

  But social factors between men and women (gender differences) may play a bigger role。

  但是两性之间社会因素(性别差异)的影响可能更大。

  For instance, women, in general, experience more stress than men, and research has shown that social stress is a main cause of depression。

  例如,一般来说女性的压力要比男性更大,而有研究表明社会压力是抑郁的主因。

  But, new research that I’ve conducted with my colleague Maryam Moghani Lankarani suggests that men might be more vulnerable to depression caused by stressful events。

  但是由我和同事兰卡拉尼完成的一项研究发现,在由压力事件导致的抑郁面前,男性也许要比女性更加脆弱。

  Researchers have defined stress as any major changes to the status quo (existing balance) that may potentially cause mental or emotional strain or tension。

  根据研究者的定义,压力是指任何对于现状(现有的平衡)的改变,可能会导致精神或情绪上的紧张。

  These stressful life events can include marriage, divorce, separation, marital reconciliation, personal injury or illness, dismissal from work or retirement。

  这些压力事件可以涵盖结婚、离婚、分手、婚姻和解、人身伤害或疾病、被解雇或退休。

  Men are more likely to have depressive episodes following work difficulties, divorce and separation

  在公共困难、离婚和分手的影响下,男性更容易诱发抑郁症。

  Women, on the other hand, are more sensitive to conflict, serious illness or death happening in their close social network。

  而在另一方面,对于发生在亲密社交关系网中的冲突、重病、和死亡事件来说,女性要更加敏感一些。

  In fact, research suggests that most of the stressful events that cause depression among women are related to their close social network, such as romantic and marital relationships, child-rearing and parenting。

  事实上,研究发现大多数促使女性抑郁的压力事件都和她们的亲密社交关系网有关,例如恋爱和婚姻关系、养育子女和怀孕。

  Research suggests that compared to men, women tend to ruminate (the technical term for ’overthinking’) more about stressors and have negative thoughts that cause depression。

  研究表明,和男性相比,女性倾向于更加反复考虑(也就是俗称的“想太多”)压力源,由此产生消极思想并且导致抑郁。

  And at least one study suggests that this explains the gender difference in the prevalence of depression。

  至少有一份研究表明,这一原因可以解释两性在抑郁患病率上的差别。

  Rumination can make stress worse, and unfortunately, it is more common among women。

  “想太多”会使得压力的影响更大,而不幸的是,女性“想太多”很普遍。

  These findings suggest that psychosocial causes of depression may be at least partially gender-specific, and that these disparities are rooted in different life conditions – social inequalities – that men and women experience。

  从这些发现来看,抑郁症的社会心理原因至少有部分是性别差异,而这些差异根植于两性体验到的不同生活条件,也即是社会不平等。

  And, in general, women tend to experience greater social inequality and social stress, and therefore depression, than men。

  一般来说,女性倾向于经历更大的社会不平等和社会压力,因此她们患抑郁症的概率也要大于男性。

  The gender gap in depression is largest in countries with highest gender inequalities。

  在性别不平等最严重的国家,两性在抑郁症患病率上的差别也越大。

  Gender difference in burden of depression is highest in the countries where women and men differ more in access to resources and social equity。

  在那些两性获取资源和社会公平显著不同的国家,女性和男性在抑郁症患病率上表现出来的差异最大。

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