分类:英语资讯 作者:奇妙冰淇淋 评论:0 点击: 385 次 日期:2016-07-05


  Chilly bumps, goose pimples, goosebumps – there are a few names for when tiny elevations on your skin form that resemble a goose’s flesh after its feathers are plucked。


  And the cold, a sad tune or powerful scene from a movie can trigger this phenomenon when you least expect it。


  In this week’s episode of BrainCraft, Youtuber Vanessa Hill dives into the weird and wonderful science of why humans experience the chilling sensation of goosebumps。


  The scientific term for this evolutionary trait is pilomotor reflex or piloerection。


  ‘I want you to think of the last time you remember experiencing them,’ says Hill in the YouTube clip。


  ‘Was it at the beginning of this video?’


  ‘And if not, was it from the cold? Or music? A movie? Were you just having an intense emotional response to something?’


  She continues to explain when hair standing to attention, it forms a buffer between your skin and the cold air –helping you to thermorgulate or regulate your body temperature。


  This is why most people tend to get goosebumps when they are cold or feel a chill。


  The sensation is caused by the tiny muscles underneath each follicle, called arrector pili, and when they contract, the hair is pulled upright。


  ‘These are involuntary muscles and they’re part of our sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for most fight or flight responses,’ explains Hill。


  ‘The reaction is closely tied to our emotional state, and apart from being cold, this is why movies may be the best trigger for goosebumps。’


  However, listening to music has also triggered the reaction in a majority of adults。


  Experts believe that this is ‘just the structure and nature of music itself’, as it creates anticipation in the brain。


  Although it seems you are deeply involved in the music of a song, your brain is actually working hard to predict the next lyric or note and the internal stakes builds within us subconsciously。


  Another theory suggest that sad songs are more likely to give us the chills, compared to happy ones。


  This is because sad or nostalgic music has the ability to create chilling feelings of social loss。


  ‘Feeling separate from your family or social group is known to give rise to goosebumps, but the reason why isn’t well understood,’ says Hill。


  ‘We do know that getting shivers down the spine from music activates the same brain structures as other things that make us feel euphoric – like food and some drugs。’


  This is because brain imaging studies have found that goosebumps activates structures like the amygdala and parts of the prefrontal cortex -- both found associated with pleasure and reward。


  And there is no rhyme or reason to when this sensation will occur, as it is sometimes brought on by a distant memory of a past event。


  However, this phenomenon is one which descends from our ancient ancestors who used it to keep warm and it may have even kept them alive by deterring predators -- but experts have deemed this reaction useless to modern day humans。


  However, goosebumps are very important to some creatures of the world, such as cats, dogs and other mammals who use it has a way to seem larger and scarier to their predators。



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