分类:英语资讯 作者:雪泥 评论:0 点击: 335 次 日期:2016-07-06


  Giving out free condoms at school is not a surefire way to avoid teenage pregnancy - or it might not be enough。


  Access to condoms in schools increases teen fertility rates by about 10 per cent, according to a new study by the University Of Notre Dame。


  However the increase happened in schools where no counseling was provided when condoms were given out - and giving out guidance as well as birth control could have the opposite effect, economists Kasey Buckles and Daniel Hungerman said in the study。


  Access to other kinds of birth control, such as the contraceptive pill, IUDs and implants, has been shown to lower teen fertility rates - but condoms might have opposite consequences due to their failure rate as well as the time and frequency at which they’re used。


  Buckles and Hungerman looked at 22 school districts located in 12 different states, using data from the 1990s。


  Times have changed already and teenagers today are overall less likely to have sex and less likely to become pregnant, they wrote。


  Most of the free condoms programs in the study began in 1992 or 1993 and about two thirds involved mandatory counseling。


  The 10 per cent increased occurred as a result of schools that gave out condoms without counseling, Buckles and Hungerman said。


  ’These fertility effects may have been attenuated, or perhaps even reversed, when counseling was mandated as part of condom provision,’ they wrote。


  Teenage girls were also more likely to develop gonorrhea when condoms were given for free - and again, the increase happened as a result of schools giving out condoms without counseling。


  Access to contraceptives in general has been shown to lower teen fertility, Buckles and Hungerman noted, or in some cases had no effect at all。


  But condoms might have a different impact because of several factors, such as the fact that their failure rate is more important than that of other contraceptives。


  Condoms also rely ’more heavily on the male partner’, which is an important factor given that an unplanned pregnancy will have different consequences for each gender, Buckle and Hungerman wrote。


  The time at which condoms are used could also explain why they have a different impact than other types of birth control。 Condoms have to be used at the time of intercourse, whereas the pill, IUDs and implants are all taken in advance。


  Using condoms also results from a short-term decision rather than long-term。


  Free condom programs in schools could have led to two additional births per 1,000 teenage women so far, Buckle and Hungerman found。


  This could increase to 5 extra births per 1,000 teenage girls if the country’s entire high-school-aged population had access to condoms。


  Condom distribution programs could promote the use of condoms over more efficient birth control methods, drive schools to use their resources for condom distribution rather than more effective programs, or might encourage ’risky’ sexual behaviors, Buckle and Hungerman wrote。


  But these findings should be used with caution when reflecting on policy proposals, they added。


  Health clinics based in schools that offered contraceptives were shown to significantly lower teen fertility in a 2014 study。


  ’If health clinics can effectively combine contraception access and counseling, this may lead to very different effects than access alone,’ Buckle and Hungerman said。



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