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校园免费避孕套使怀孕率不降反增(双语)

分类:英语资讯 作者:雪泥 评论:0 点击: 294 次 日期:2016-07-06

udast

  Giving out free condoms at school is not a surefire way to avoid teenage pregnancy - or it might not be enough。

  在学校里发放免费避孕套并不是一个防止青少年怀孕的完全之法--或者说单靠这一措施不足以达到想要的结果。

  Access to condoms in schools increases teen fertility rates by about 10 per cent, according to a new study by the University Of Notre Dame。

  圣母大学的一项最新研究表明,在学校里能够获得避孕套的情况下,青少年们的生育率提高了10%。

  However the increase happened in schools where no counseling was provided when condoms were given out - and giving out guidance as well as birth control could have the opposite effect, economists Kasey Buckles and Daniel Hungerman said in the study。

  在这份研究中,经济学家巴克尔斯和亨格曼表示说,生育率有所上升的学校在发放避孕套的时候没有提供咨询服务,而在提供生育控制措施的同时提供指导会起到正面的效果。

  Access to other kinds of birth control, such as the contraceptive pill, IUDs and implants, has been shown to lower teen fertility rates - but condoms might have opposite consequences due to their failure rate as well as the time and frequency at which they’re used。

  而其他避孕措施,例如避孕药和植入宫内避孕器,在降低生育率方面确有其效--但是由于破损以及被使用的时间和次数的原因,避孕套有可能带来相反的结果。

  Buckles and Hungerman looked at 22 school districts located in 12 different states, using data from the 1990s。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼的研究对象是12个州的22个学区,使用了从20世纪90年代以来的数据。

  Times have changed already and teenagers today are overall less likely to have sex and less likely to become pregnant, they wrote。

  他们写道,时代已经改变了,现在的青少年总体上更不可能发生性行为,也更加不可能怀孕。

  Most of the free condoms programs in the study began in 1992 or 1993 and about two thirds involved mandatory counseling。

  这项研究所关注的免费避孕套项目大多开始于1992年和1993年,三分之二的项目还要提供强制性的咨询服务。

  The 10 per cent increased occurred as a result of schools that gave out condoms without counseling, Buckles and Hungerman said。

  据巴克尔斯和亨格曼表示,由于有些学校在发放避孕套的时候没有提供咨询服务,因此这些地方的生育率提高了10%。

  ’These fertility effects may have been attenuated, or perhaps even reversed, when counseling was mandated as part of condom provision,’ they wrote。

  他们写道:“如果咨询服务被作为避孕套提供项目的一部分而被强制执行的话,生育率的增长可能不会这么高,或者甚至会反向降低。”

  Teenage girls were also more likely to develop gonorrhea when condoms were given for free - and again, the increase happened as a result of schools giving out condoms without counseling。

  当避孕套是免费发放时,女孩更容易染上淋病--再次,患病率的提高是因为学校在发放避孕套的同时没有提供咨询服务。”

  Access to contraceptives in general has been shown to lower teen fertility, Buckles and Hungerman noted, or in some cases had no effect at all。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼指出,一般来说,避孕措施降低了青少年的生育率,但是在某些情况下也有可能完全没有效果。

  But condoms might have a different impact because of several factors, such as the fact that their failure rate is more important than that of other contraceptives。

  但是由于某些原因,避孕套可能起到不同的效果,例如使用避孕套的失败率要比其他避孕措施高得多。

  Condoms also rely ’more heavily on the male partner’, which is an important factor given that an unplanned pregnancy will have different consequences for each gender, Buckle and Hungerman wrote。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼写道,避孕套的使用也“更加依靠男方”,男方的行为是意外怀孕的重要原因,取决于男方行为的不同,两性受结果的影响也将不同。

  The time at which condoms are used could also explain why they have a different impact than other types of birth control。 Condoms have to be used at the time of intercourse, whereas the pill, IUDs and implants are all taken in advance。

  避孕套使用的时机也能解释为什么它能够产生不同于其他避孕措施的效果。避孕套必须在性交的时候使用,而避孕药和宫内避孕器植入都是在性交之前。

  Using condoms also results from a short-term decision rather than long-term。

  使用避孕套是一个短期、而非长期考虑的结果。

  Free condom programs in schools could have led to two additional births per 1,000 teenage women so far, Buckle and Hungerman found。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼发现,到目前为止,学校里的免费避孕套项目能够使得每1000名女孩额外多生育两次。

  This could increase to 5 extra births per 1,000 teenage girls if the country’s entire high-school-aged population had access to condoms。

  如果全美所有高中适龄人群都能够得到免费避孕套的话,每千名女生额外生育的次数将上升到五次。

  Condom distribution programs could promote the use of condoms over more efficient birth control methods, drive schools to use their resources for condom distribution rather than more effective programs, or might encourage ’risky’ sexual behaviors, Buckle and Hungerman wrote。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼写道,避孕套发放项目将使得人们使用更多的避孕套,而不是其他效率更高的避孕措施,从而驱使学校使用他们的资源来发放避孕套而不是其他更有效的措施,还会鼓励“有风险的”性行为。

  But these findings should be used with caution when reflecting on policy proposals, they added。

  但是他们两人又补充说道,当被反映在政策中的时候,这些发现应该被小心谨慎地使用。

  Health clinics based in schools that offered contraceptives were shown to significantly lower teen fertility in a 2014 study。

  2014年的一份研究指出,学校诊所通过提供避孕措施显著降低了生育率。

  ’If health clinics can effectively combine contraception access and counseling, this may lead to very different effects than access alone,’ Buckle and Hungerman said。

  巴克尔斯和亨格曼说道:“如果诊所能够将避孕和咨询有效地结合起来的话,起到的效果将和只提供避孕措施非常不同。”

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