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双语:中国十大名花都有哪些你知道吗?

分类:英语资讯 作者:雪泥 评论:0 点击: 287 次 日期:2017-03-08

  Messengers of spring, embodiments of beauty, flowers are one of the most amazing wonders on this planet。 They appear in literature, food, beverages and decorations that adorn us。

  花是春天的使者,是美丽的化身,是星球上最让人惊叹的奇迹之一。它们出现在文学作品、美食、饮品和各类饰品中,装点着我们的生活。

  As a new year starts and spring draws nearer day by day, we can look forward to another round of flowers blooming in the following months。

  新年伊始,春天的脚步一天天近了,在接下来的几个月里,我们将期待着新一轮的鲜花绽放。

  We’ve highlighted 10 of the most well-known flowers in China that have special significance in Chinese culture。

  这里我们精选了10种在中国最有名的花,它们在中国文化中有着非同寻常的意义。

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  Plum blossom

  梅花

  In Mao Zedong’s poem Ode to Plum Blossom, he described the flower like this: “Fair and beautiful。 Not craving for spring for her own, only to tell the coming of the season。 When all flowers bloom in full, she smiles among them。 ”

  毛泽东的《咏梅》一诗中这样写道:“风雨送春归,飞雪迎春到。已是悬崖百丈冰,犹有花枝俏。俏也不争春,只把春来报。待到山花烂漫时,她在丛中笑。”

  Mao used the plum blossom as a metaphor to praise great martyrs who sacrificed their lives for a better life for Chinese people。

  这儿毛主席用梅花来形容那些为了中国人民有更好的生活而捐躯的伟大烈士们。

  In traditional Chinese culture, plum blossom stands for noble, unsullied and modest qualities。 Along with orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum, they are praised as the “Four Men of Noble Character”。

  在中国传统文化中,梅花象征高贵、纯洁和谦逊。梅花和兰花、竹子、菊花并称为“四君子”。

  Plum blossom cake is one of the most famous snacks in Nanjing, Suzhou and Wuxi。 Made in the shape of plum blossom, the cake is made of sticky rice, jam, nuts and red bean paste。

  梅花糕是南京、苏州、无锡一代最有名的小吃,用糯米、果酱、坚果、红豆沙制成梅花形状的糕点。

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  Peony

  牡丹

  The great Chinese poet Li Bai, from the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), once compared concubine Yang Yuhuan’s beautiful face to blooming peonies in his famous poem Qing Ping Diao。 “Floating clouds remind me of her clothes, and peonies her face,” he wrote。

  唐朝(公元618到907年)伟大诗人李白曾在著名古诗《清平调》中把杨玉环的绝色容颜比作盛放的牡丹花:“云想衣裳花想容”。

  Flowering in May, peonies’ large petals and strong colors are linked to prosperity and richness in traditional Chinese culture。 Thus, it became very popular during the Tang Dynasty, a period of time when Chinese people preferred magnificent and glorious things, such as fat and strong horses and large flowers。 In the late Qing Dynasty, the peony was chosen as the national flower。

  五月盛开的牡丹花大色艳,在中国传统文化中寓意富贵荣华。自唐代以来,世人甚爱牡丹,这个时期的人们偏爱雍容华贵的东西,比如肥壮的马和大朵的花。晚清时期,牡丹被确立为国花。

  In many New Year pictures, fairy children always hold peonies that bear people’s wishes for an auspicious and rich new year。

  许多年画中经常描绘仙童手捧牡丹,代表着人们吉祥富贵的新年愿望。

  Dried peony petals can also be added in tea and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain caused by menstruation。

  牡丹干花被加入茶和中药中,可缓解痛经。

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  Chrysanthemum

  菊花

  This flower is often associated with famous poet Tao Yuanming from the Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 317-420)。 In his poemDrinking Wine, Tao wrote: “While picking up chrysanthemums beneath the eastern fence, my gaze was leisurely upon the southern mountains”。 The piece became one of the most well-known poems, picturing a peaceful and satisfying life dreamed of by many people。

  提到菊花,人们往往会想起东晋(公元317到420年)陶渊明的古诗《饮酒》中的“采菊东篱下,悠然见南山”。它成为最为有名的古诗之一,勾画了许多人梦想中的宁静安适的田园生活。

  With its unsophisticated beauty, chrysanthemum is also a symbol of longevity in Chinese myths and literature。

  由于其素雅美丽,菊花在中国神话故事中和文学作品中也是长寿的象征。

  According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, chrysanthemum tea can relieve internal heat and fever。 That’s why people often drink the tea after having too much spicy and baked food。 Pillows made of dried chrysanthemum are also good for people’s eyes。

  传统中医认为,菊花茶可清火去热,这也是为什么人们往往在吃太多辛辣或者烘焙食物后要喝菊花茶。菊花枕可明目。

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  Chinese rose

  月季花

  Bearing a strong resemblance to other roses, yet with fewer thorns and larger petals, the plant originates from China, hence the name “Chinese rose”。

  月季花外观和玫瑰极为相似,只不过刺更少花瓣更大,因为原产于中国,所以它的名字是中国玫瑰。

  “Bloom or fade, the flower never cares about arrival of spring; Best peonies only appear in late spring and early summer, yet Chinese roses enjoy the four seasons with unceasing beauty,” poet Su Shi from the Song Dynasties ( 960-1279) described the flower in his poem。

  宋代(公元960年到公元1279年)诗人苏轼曾在诗中写道:“花落花开不间断,春来春去不相关。牡丹最贵为春晚,芍药虽繁只夏初。惟有此花开不厌,一年长占四时春。”

  Chinese people started to grow the rose about 2,000 years ago。 In the Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 220), Chinese roses were widely grown in royal gardens。 And in the Tang Dynasty, the flowers found their way into most regions along the Yangtze River。

  国人早在2000年前就开始种植月季,汉朝(公元前206年到公元220年)时就已在宫廷花园中大量栽培,唐朝时更为普遍,广泛分布在长江流域地区。

  Apart from being extracted to make perfume, the roots, leaves and flowers of Chinese roses are used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure menstruation disorders。

  除了用来制成香水,月季的根、叶和花瓣都可入药,用来调节月经。

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  Azalea

  杜鹃

  Often appearing in old Chinese poems and stories, azalea, or du juan, is the favorite flower of poet BaiJuyi from the Tang Dynasty。 He not only praised the flowers in his poems, but tried to grow azaleas。

  杜鹃花经常出现在中国古诗词中,是唐朝诗人白居易最爱的花。他不仅常在诗中赞美杜鹃花,还尝试种植杜鹃花。

  “Once grown on hills, now blooming in gardens…send a message to God and let azalea be the king of flowers,” Bai wrote in his poem Azalea Twelve Tunes。

  他曾在《山石榴花十二韵》中写道:“本是山头物,今为砌下芳。千丛相向背,万朵互低昂。”

  In Chinese mytholgy, a melancholy bird named Du Juan bleated day and night until it spat blood, which painted all the flowers on the hill red。 The flowers were named after the miserable bird。

  中国曾有杜鹃啼血的神话,传说一种忧郁的鸟名叫杜鹃,它昼夜悲鸣,啼至血出乃止,杜鹃花就是被杜鹃鸟的鲜血染红的,因此而得名。

  The whole plant can be used in traditional Chinese medicine and can help to cure kidney illness and deafness。

  传统中医里杜鹃花入药可治疗肾虚耳聋。

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  Lotus

  荷花

  Lotus flower is an important symbol of pureness in Buddhism, and also traditional Chinese culture。 A Song Dynasty scholar, Zhou Dunyi, praised lotus as “unsullied from silt where it comes from, retains demure despite being cleaned by water” in his prose Ai LianShuo。

  荷花在佛教和中国传统文化中是纯洁的象征。宋代学者周敦颐在散文《爱莲说》中是这样称赞荷花的:“予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染,濯清涟而不妖。”

  In ancient Chinese literature, the lotus is often connected with women’s noble and pure personality。 In the Chinese classicThe Dream of the Red Chamber, Qing Wen, an honest and upright maid of protagonist JiaBaoyu, becomes a lotus fairy after passing away。

  在中国古代文学中,荷花也寓意着女子的高洁人格。中国古典文学《红楼梦》中,主人公贾宝玉忠诚、正直的丫环晴雯死后托梦说自己变成了芙蓉仙子。

  The flower, along with its leaves, seeds and roots have being widely used in both Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years。

  数千年来,荷花的叶、籽和根常用来做菜,也用作中药。

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  Camellia

  山茶花

  Coco Chanel’s favorite flower, the camellia, has been planted in China as early as the Three Kingdoms (AD 220-280)。

  山茶花是传奇时装设计师可可-香奈儿最爱的花,早在三国时代(公元220到280年)就在中国栽种。

  There is a poem Ode to Camellia, written by a lady called “Madame Huarui”, that describes the camellia as “Blooming on the hills, like burning sunset glow and floating pink clouds…the scenery is more beautiful than hundreds of flowers blooming in heaven。”

  一位人称花蕊夫人在其作的《山茶咏》中写道:“山茶树树采山坳,恍如赤霞彩云飘。人道邡江花如锦,胜过天池百花摇。”

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  Sweet-scented osmanthus

  桂花

  In her poem, Li Qingzhao from the Song Dynasty, described osmanthus as “light yellow, with a delicate figure, that only leaves fragrance behind; No need for bright greens and reds, the osmanthus is a flower destined to shine。”

  宋代女词人李清照曾在诗中这样描写桂花:“暗淡轻黄体性柔。情疏迹远只香留。何须浅碧深红色,自是花中第一流。”

  Planting sweet-scented osmanthus in China has a history of more than 2,500 years。 Often blooming in August, the plant is also connected with Mid-Autumn Festival due to the fairy tale about a man named Wu Gang。 Wu is ordered to cut down a large and strong osmanthus tree on the moon every day, yet the charmed tree never falls and has fragrant flowers each autumn。 Wu is only allowed to have a rest for Mid-Autumn Festival。

  桂花在中国有2500多年的栽培历史。桂花通常在八月盛开,还有一个和中秋节相关的典故:传说吴刚因遭天帝惩罚到月宫砍伐桂树,其树随砍随合,以这种永无休止的劳动作为对吴刚的惩罚,只有在中秋节这一天吴刚才能休息。

  The little yellow flowers are often added to porridge, cakes and tea to enhance the taste。 In Guangxi province where many osmanthus trees are planted, the perfume produced by the flowers has become an important local specialty。

  这种香气扑鼻的小黄花常常被加入到粥、糕点和茶中提升口感。在中国广西省种有许多桂花树,由其制作的香水成为当地一大特产。

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  Narcissus

  水仙花

  With its green, white and yellow colors, narcissus, often grown in water, bears a kind of heavenly beauty。 Thus it always finds its way into mythologies from different cultures。

  水仙结合了绿色、白色和黄色三种颜色,生长在水中,有一种神圣的美感,因此在很多不同文化的神话中都有水仙出现。

  In Greek mythology, the flower was named after a hunter Narcissus who was well-known for his beauty。 And in Chinese folklore, narcissus is the embodiment of Emperor Yao’s two daughters, E Huang and Nv Ying。

  在希腊神话中,水仙以美少年那耳喀索斯的名字命名。在中国神话中,水仙是尧的女儿娥皇、女英的化身。

  According to historical records, the original narcissus was imported from Italy in the Tang Dynasty。 Chinese people cultivated better flowers after centuries of breeding。 In China, narcissus can be sculptured into various kinds of bonsais。 The flowers are often used as a decoration during the Chinese New Year。

  根据历史记载,水仙的原种为唐代从意大利引进,经过数百年的栽培,水仙的品种得到了改良。在中国,水仙可以被雕成形状各异的盆栽,多用来庆贺新年。

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  Orchid

  兰花

  As one of the “Four Men of Noble Character” in Chinese culture, the orchid is better known for its delicate fragrance。 And its Chinese character “lan” has being widely used in women’s names for thousands of years。

  兰花也是“中国四君子”之一,它以芳香闻名。几千年来,“兰”字被广泛用作中国女性的名字。

  Ancient Chinese called eternal friendship “lanjiao”, or companionship as nobel as the orchid, and beautiful prose and poems “lanzhang”, or words as graceful as the orchid。 People started to grow the flower in China about 2,000 years ago。 After the Wei and Jin dynasties (AD 220- 420), orchids were mainly used to decorate gardens。

  古人将知心好友被称为“兰交”,即友谊如兰花一样珍贵;美文被称为“兰章”,即文字如兰花一样优雅。2000年前中国人民就开始种兰花,魏晋时期(公元220到420年),花园里就到处都能看见兰花了。

责任编辑:李然

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