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入伏不用愁:看看古人如何享受清凉一夏(双语)

分类:英语资讯 作者:奇妙冰淇淋 评论:0 点击: 297 次 日期:2017-07-15

  入伏之后,中国大部分地区都即将迎来一年中最炎热的时刻,许多人都选择待在空调房里享受冷饮,但是在没有现代科技的古代,古人们是如何熬过炎炎夏日的呢?

udast

  According to the Chinese solar terms, it’s Minor Heat now, when most parts of China are going to experience the hottest days of the year. During the scorching summer, we modern people can enjoy cold drinks in an air-conditioned room to escape the heat. But how did ancient people cool down without these modern-day technologies?

  按照节气来算目前已经是小暑时节了,中国大部分地区都即将迎来一年中最热的日子。炎炎夏日,我们现代人可以在空调房里享受冷饮,但古人是如何在没有现代科技的情况下避暑降温、享受清凉一夏的呢?

  Icehouse and ice ticket

  一、冰窖和冰票。

udast

  As early as Pre-Qin Dynasty (2100-221 BC), people used natural ice to keep food fresh and make cold drinks. According to the record in the Confucian classic Zhou Rites, the Zhou royal court had a specialized department called the "ice administration" which had 80 employees. The department collected natural ice blocks each December, and then transported them to the ice house for storage.

  早在先秦时期(前2100年-前221年),人们就已经会利用天然冰块来为食物保鲜、制作冷饮了。据儒家经典《周礼》记载,周王室有一个叫“冰政”的专门机构,共有80名“职工”。每年腊月这个机构就会收集天然冰块,送往冰窖储存。

  Some senior officials were awarded ice cubes by the Zhou royal court, which was a big honor during that time. The system of granting ice lasted until the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. During the Qing Dynasty, "ice tickets" were distributed to officials instead of sending the ice directly to them.

  一些高级官员会被周王室奖励冰块,这在当时是一项极高的荣誉。将冰块作为奖励的制度一直延续到了明清时期。到清代时,朝廷会给官员发放“冰票”,而不是直接将冰块发给他们。

  Ice container

  二、冰鉴。

udast

  The most commonly used cooling utensil is called "Jian", which is a big container filled with ice. It was made of ceramic in early Chinese history, and was later made of copper. The "Jian" can be seen as an ancient refrigerator, which can be used to make cold drinks. Put the vessel holding food inside the "Jian", close the lid, and the drinks would become cold after a while.

  在古代,最常用的冷却器物被称之为“鉴”,是一个装满冰块的大容器。早先冰鉴是一种陶器,后来材质改为了青铜。冰鉴可以看做是古人的冰箱,可以用来制作冷饮。将食物放入冰鉴内,盖上盖子,过一会儿饮料就会变凉。

  Hiding food in the well

  三、井中藏食。

udast

  During the Qin (221-207 BC) and Han (202 BC-AD 220) dynasties, for common people, the most common way to cool off is by using their wells. Some families put an urn in the well as a cold closet, or put food in a basket and lowered the basket into the well with a rope. Actually, ancient people don’t need cold beverages, as well water was the best drink in summer.

  秦汉时期,对普通人来说,降温的最常用方法是利用他们的水井。一些人家会将大缸放入井中当做冰柜,或将食物放于篮中,用绳悬挂垂入井内。事实上古人并不需要冷饮,因为井水就是炎炎夏日最好的降温饮料。

  Herbal drinks

  四、凉茶。

udast

  During the Qing Dynasty, taking Chinese herbal medicine was popular in Beijing. According to historical records, during the scorching summer, some people preferred to drink ice water, some boiled perilla leaves, and liquorice as summer soup to keep off the heat. Ancient people also loved to make lotus seed soup in summer which was said to have the benefit of strengthening the body.

  清朝时期,中草药在北京很受欢迎。据史料记载,当时在炎热的夏天,一些人喜爱喝冰水,另一些人则喜爱将紫苏叶和甘草煮水服用,从而避暑降温。古人还喜爱在夏季煮食莲子汤,据称有助于强健身体。

  Bed-mat for summer

  五、凉席。

udast

  Ancient people wove vines, reeds, or bamboo into bed-mats for summer which are cool to sleep on.

  古人会把藤蔓、芦苇、以及竹子编成凉席,睡在上面非常凉爽。

  Porcelain pillow

  六、瓷枕。

udast

  The surface of a porcelain pillow is a layer of glaze, which feels pleasantly cool. It is said that the Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty liked his porcelain pillow a lot.

  瓷枕的表面是一层釉面,感觉凉爽宜人。据说清朝乾隆皇帝就非常喜欢他的瓷枕。

  Dragon fur curtain

  七、龙皮帘。

udast

  The dragon fur curtain was used during ancient times to block the hot waves in the summer, and keep interiors pleasantly cool. It was not really made of dragon fur, since there are no such creatures as dragons, so some say it was made of the skin of large boas. Surrounded by large and cold boa skins, the place would feel like an air-conditioned room. However, the skin was precious and difficult to obtain, so only the royal court was able to use it.

  古代人们使用龙皮帘来阻挡夏季室外的滚滚热浪,使室内凉爽宜人。因为根本没有龙,所以龙皮帘也不是用龙的皮制成,所以有人说龙皮帘可能是由大蟒蛇的皮制成。身处被龙皮帘环绕的房间里就好像是坐在空调房里一样。但是龙皮帘非常昂贵且难以获得,因此只有皇室才能消受得起。

  Bamboo lady

  八、竹夫人。

udast

  Ancient people in the southern parts of China preferred to use a cylinder-shaped bamboo ware, which is hollow in the middle and has grid mesh on the surface. It uses the principle of cross ventilation to cool people down, and can be hugged, or used to hold up your feet.

  在古代,南方的人们喜爱抱着“竹夫人”睡觉,这是一种圆筒形、中空的竹编制品,表面呈网格状。竹夫人采用交叉通风的原理让人们降温,既可以抱着睡,也可以用来垫脚。

  Fan

  9、扇子。

udast

  Last but not least, the most commonly used tool to cool down in the summer is the humble fan, and is still used nowadays. Fans were made of different materials, such as bird’s feathers, bamboo, or fur.

  最后,古人夏季降温最常用的器物毫无疑问是扇子,即使今天人们也仍然还在使用。制作扇子的材料多种多样,羽毛、竹子、皮毛均可。

致儒先生




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