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这些英语日常用语原来都出自莎士比亚

分类:英语资讯 作者:鞭辟入里 评论:0 点击: 99 次 日期:2018-01-31

  莎士比亚写过很多伟大的戏剧,但是他也创造并普及了很多新词和短语,有一些我们到现在仍然经常使用。一起来看看这些短语的出处吧。

"The green eyed-monster" 绿眼睛的怪物"The green eyed-monster" 绿眼睛的怪物

  "Oh, beware, my lord, of jealousy!
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on."
“哦,我的主人,请当心嫉妒!
它是绿眼睛的怪物只会愚弄
自己的盘中肉”

udast

  莎士比亚用法:

  Iago says this phrase as he plants doubts in Othello's mind about his wife's faithfulness. Merriam-Webster writes that he may have been evoking cats, given that they are "green-eyed creatures who toy with their prey before killing it."

  伊阿古让奥赛罗对妻子的忠心起了疑心后,说了这个短语。韦氏大词典中写道,伊阿古这么说可能会让人想到猫,因为嫉妒是“绿眼睛的怪物,杀死猎物之前会先玩弄一番”。

  现代用法:

  Now "the green eyed-monster" is an idiomatic expression for the noun "jealousy."

  现在“绿眼睛的怪物”是“嫉妒”的习惯表达。

  Source: "Othello," Act 3, Scene 3

  出处:《奥赛罗》第三幕,第三场

  "Break the ice"
打破坚冰

  "... And if you break the ice and do this feat,
Achieve the elder, set the younger free
For our access, whose hap shall be to have her
Will not so graceless be to be ingrate."
“您要是破了坚冰,
娶了他的大女儿,解放了小女儿,
给我们开辟出一条路来,无论这幸运落在哪一个人身上,
对您老兄总不会不知感激的。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  Tranio suggests if Petruchio can "break the ice," then he will be able to woo Katherina. By using the "ice" language, Shakespeare makes Katherina seem as cold as ice. Moreover, the fact that the ice needs to be broken suggests that she is hard to reach.

  特兰尼奥想让批特鲁乔替他“破了坚冰”,然后他就能够向凯萨琳娜求爱。通过这个词组,莎士比亚暗示凯萨琳娜像坚冰一样寒冷,而坚冰之所以需要被破,也说明凯萨琳娜的不近人情。

  But the first actual usage of "break the ice" probably comes from Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of "Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans" — although in this case the phrase meant "to forge a path for others to follow," alluding to the breaking of ice to allow the navigation of boats.

  不过,“破除坚冰”第一次出现,是在托马斯•诺斯爵士1579 年翻译的普鲁塔克《希腊罗马名人传》,不过在这里,这个词组意味着“为其他人开辟一条道路”,意指通过破冰来让船通过。

  现代用法:

  "Break the ice" still means to get to know someone.

  意思仍然是“开始认识某人”。

  Source: "The Taming of the Shrew," Act 1, Scene 2

  出处:《驯悍记》,第一幕,第二场。

  "Wear my heart upon my sleeve"
直抒胸臆

  "For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart
In compliment extern, 'tis not long after
But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve
For daws to peck at: I am not what I am."
“要是我的表面的行动,
果然出于内心的自然流露,
那么不久我就要掬出我的心来,
让乌鸦们乱啄了。世人所知道的我,并不是实在的我。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  Devious Iago basically says that if his outward appearance reflected what he was thinking, then his heart would be on his sleeve for birds to peck at — which is not a good idea in his eyes. And so he adds that he is actually not what he appears to be.

  邪恶的伊阿古要说的是,如果他的外表反映了他的思想,那他的心就要让乌鸦们乱啄了。在他看来,这不是一个好主意。所以他又说,他的外表并不能反应真实的他。

  Notably, Iago's motives for his antagonistic behavior are never fully revealed — so it is interesting that he is the character who has immortalized this phrase.

  伊阿古这一行为背后的动机从来没有被揭晓,有趣的是,也是他让这个短语流传千古。

  现代用法:

  To show one's feelings openly.

  公开表达某人的感受。

  Source: "Othello," Act 1, Scene 1

  出处:《奥赛罗》,第一幕,第一场。

  "All of a sudden"
突然之间

  "I pray, sir, tell me, is it possible That love should of a sodaine take such hold?"
“少爷,请您告诉我,难道爱情会这么快就把一个人征服了吗?”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  How Shakespeare uses it: Apparently, Shakespeare might have thought that "all of a sudden" was a more poetic way of saying "suddenly" so he had the character Tranio in "The Taming of the Shrew" say it that way.

  显然,莎士比亚认为all of a sudden比用suddenly一词更诗意。所以,他让特兰尼奥在《驯悍记》中这么说。

  Although, Shakespeare wasn't the first to use "sudden" — John Greenwood used it in 1590.

  不过,莎士比亚不是第一个用sudden这个词的,约翰•格林伍德在1590年第一次使用这个词。

  现代用法:

  The meaning is the same, although we now spell it "sudden" rather than "sodaine." The word is spelled in the modern way in newer printings of "The Taming of the Shrew."

  这个词在现代的意义没有变化,只不过现在我们将其拼成sudden,而不是sodaine。在现代新版本的《驯悍记》中,这个词都被改成了现代的拼写方法。

  Source: "The Taming of the Shrew," Act 1, Scene 1

  出处:《驯悍记》,第一幕,第一场。

  "A heart of gold"
金子般的心

  "The king's a bawcock, and a heart of gold,
A lad of life, an imp of fame;
Of parents good, of fist most valiant. ..."
“国王是个好样的,有金子一般的心,
是位活泼的小伙子,一位高贵祖先的后人,
父母都没错,他的拳头也厉害。”
(刘炳善译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  King Henry disguises himself as a commoner in the play and asks Pistol, who is unaware of the disguise, whether he considers himself to be better than the king. Pistol responds with the above quote.

  亨利国王将他自己伪装成平民,问毕斯托尔是不是自以为比国王更优秀。毕斯托尔没有认出亨利国王,以引文作答。

  现代用法:

  To be extremely kind and helpful.

  十分友善,乐于助人。

  Source: "Henry V," Act 4, Scene 1

  出处:《亨利五世》,第四幕,第一场。

  "In my heart of heart"
在我内心深处

  "Give me that man
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart,
As I do thee."
“给我一个不为感情所奴役的人,我愿意把他珍藏
在我的心坎、我的灵魂的身处,
正像我对你一样。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  While speaking with Horatio, Hamlet says this phrase noting that if there's a man who is "not passion's slave" — aka, a master of his emotions — then he'll put him close to his heart. Using the language "heart's core" right before suggests that Hamlet means some very deep, central part of his heart/emotions.

  哈姆雷特跟霍拉旭说话时用了这个短语,强调如果有一个“不受感情奴役”的人,即能够控制自己情感的人,那么他将把那个人藏在内心深处。上文中曾提到“心之正中”(heart's core)一词可以看出,哈姆雷特指的是他内心和情感最深处、最核心的部分。

  现代用法:

  Nowadays, we pluralize the second "heart" to say "in my heart of hearts." The phrase refers to one's inner-most, secret thoughts.

  如今,我们常把第二个heart改为复数,使用in my heart of hearts这个短语,用来表达人内心最深、最隐秘的想法。

  Source: "Hamlet," Act 3, Scene 2

  出处:《哈姆雷特》,第三幕,第二场。

  "Too much of a good thing"
好事过头反成坏事

  "Why then, can one desire too much of a good thing?
Come, sister, you shall be the priest and marry us.
Give me your hand, Orlando. What do you say, sister?"
“那么,好的东西会嫌太多吗?
来,妹妹,你来做牧师,给我们主婚。
把你的手给我,奥兰多。你说怎么样,妹妹?”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  This phrase may have been a proverb dating to the late 15th century, but Shakespeare was the one who has it immortalized in print.

  该短语可能是一句可以追溯到15世纪末的谚语,不过莎士比亚使其变成印刷文字流传下来。

  Rosalind is pretending to be a man named Ganymede while she is with Orlando, with whom she is in love. He's also in love with Rosalind — and doesn't know she is Ganymede — and practices how he would woo Rosalind with Ganymede. At one point, Rosalind/Ganymede suggests that they have a pretend wedding, and asks if one can ever have too much of a good thing.

  和奥兰多在一起时,罗瑟琳假扮成一个名叫盖尼米德的男人但她已经爱上了奥兰多。奥兰多也爱上了罗瑟琳,但他不知道盖尼米德就是她。他跟盖尼米德一起练习如何追求罗瑟琳。有一次,罗瑟琳(盖尼米德)建议他们举行一场假婚礼,然后问道,是否有人会嫌好东西太多。

  现代用法:

  Too much good might backfire and be bad.

  好事太多反而适得其反,成了坏事。

  Source: "As You Like It," Act 4, Scene 1

  出处:《皆大欢喜》,第四幕,第一场。

  "All that glitters is not gold"
闪光的不全是黄金

  "All that glitters is not gold;
Often have you heard that told:
Many a man his life hath sold
But my outside to behold:
Gilded tombs do worms enfold."
“闪光的不全是黄金,
这话常听人说的分明;
多少世人出卖了一生,
不过看到了我的外形,
蛆虫占据着镀金的坟。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  Shakespeare seems to be the first person to have written this phrase, although the idea was not new.

  莎士比亚似乎是第一个创作这个短语的人,不过这个想法却不是他原创的。

  The Prince of Morocco, one of Portia's suitors in "The Merchant of Venice," much choose out the correct casket to get his bride: one gold, one silver, and one lead. The gold one has an inscription on it which reads "All that glitters is not gold ... gilded tombs do worms enfold." But he picks it anyway ...

  在《威尼斯商人》中,鲍西亚的一个追求者——摩洛哥亲王,要从一个金匣子,一个银匣子和一个铅匣子中选择,其中一个匣子里藏着鲍西亚的小像。金匣子里藏着的纸卷写着引文这段话,但他仍然选了金匣子。

  现代用法:

  Basically, just because it's shiny and nice on the outside, doesn't mean that that's true of the inside.

  一般来说,这个短语的意思是,尽管外表闪耀美丽,但我们不知道其内在是不是真实的。

  Source: "The Merchant of Venice," Act 2, Scene 7

  出处:《威尼斯商人》,第二幕,第七场。

  "Good riddance"
去了干净

  Thersites: "I will see you hanged, like clotpoles, ere I come any more to your tents: I will keep where there is wit stirring and leave the faction of fools."
Patroclus: "A good riddance."
“忒耳西忒斯:我要瞧你们像一串猪狗似的吊起来,然后才会再踏进你们的营帐里;我要去找一处有聪明人的地方住下,再不跟傻瓜们混在一起了。
帕特洛克罗斯:他去了倒也干净。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  Although it's not the first usage of "riddance," Shakespeare appears to be the first person to use the phrase "good riddance".

  这不是riddance第一次出现,但莎士比亚似乎是第一个使用good riddance的人。

  He also had Portia wish the Prince of Morocco "a gentle riddance" in "The Merchant of Venice".

  此外,在《威尼斯商人》中,鲍西亚对摩洛哥亲王说了“温柔的离开”一词。

  现代用法:

  People say this expression when they are happy to have gotten rid of someone or something useless or bad.

  当人们成功摆脱无用或糟糕的人或事时,他们会用到这个词。

  Source: "Troilus and Cressida," Act 2, Scene 1

  出处:《特洛伊罗斯与克瑞西达》,第二幕,第一场。

  "Love is blind"
恋爱是盲目的

  "...But love is blind and lovers cannot see
The pretty follies that themselves commit;..."
“可是恋爱是盲目的,
恋人们瞧不见他们自己所干的傻事。”
(朱生豪译)

莎士比亚用法:莎士比亚用法:

  Technically, Chaucer first wrote the phrase "For loue is blynd alday and may nat see." But Shakespeare was the one who popularized it.

  严格说来,这个短语是乔叟首次使用的:“因为恋人整天是盲目的,他们也许看不见其他事情。”但莎士比亚让这句话变得家喻户晓。

  In the scene, Jessica has disguised herself as a boy to see her lover, Lorenzo, but feels quite "ashamed" of her get-up. Still, she comments that love is blind and people are unable to see the shortcomings of their lovers.

  在这一场戏中,杰西卡假扮成一个男孩,去见他的情人洛伦佐,但却对自己的装扮感到十分“羞愧”。不过,她评价道爱情是盲目的,人们无法看到自己情人的缺点。

  现代用法:

  The meaning of the phrase is more or less unchanged.

  意义基本没有改变。

  Source: "The Merchant of Venice," Act 2, Scene 6

  出处:《威尼斯商人》,第二幕,第六场。

  英文来源:

  商业内幕网

  中文来源:微信公众号“界面文化”

致儒先生




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